Confused by crypto terms? We've got you covered!
Learn the essentials here.



An address in the context of blockchain is a unique alphanumeric string that serves as a virtual location where cryptocurrencies can be sent to or received from. It typically represents a hashed version of a public key, ensuring secure transactions on the blockchain network.

AI Agents

An artificial intelligence (AI) agent is a software program that can interact with its environment, collect data, and use the data to perform self-determined tasks to meet predetermined goals. Humans set the goals, but an AI agent independently chooses the best actions to perform to achieve those goals.

AI Layer1

Oraichain is a Layer 1 blockchain, custom-built for intensive AI-infused decentralized applications (dApps). Every component and architecture have been carefully designed and optimized to ensure seamless integration and peak performance, providing an ideal environment for advanced AI dApps.

AI oracle

AI Oracle is the only existing decentralized solution for Trustworthy AI. Typically, blockchain oracles are responsible for reliable and decentralized data feeds to smart contracts, enabling smart contracts to execute based on real-world events. Given their crucial role in the blockchain ecosystem, the aggregation of data, which are results of AI models, requires oracles to work at the level of evaluating AI performance in addition to aggregating data. Among many approaches to “Decentralized AI,” which differ in where decentralization happens (i.e., data collection, training data, model training, or evaluation), Oraichain’s approach emphasizes decentralized execution and evaluation.


A promotional distribution method where free cryptocurrency tokens are sent to wallet addresses, often to boost a new project's visibility or foster community engagement, sometimes in exchange for simple actions like sharing, referring, or downloading an app.

Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)

An automated trading strategy that executes buy and sell orders based on predefined rules and conditions set by a computer program, utilizing mathematical models, historical data, and statistical analysis to determine transaction strategies for cryptocurrencies regarding timing, quantity, and price.


A defined set of rules or a process designed to solve problems or perform tasks, typically executed by a computer

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)

An automated mechanisms that manage the supply of algorithmic stablecoins, focusing on optimizing the collateral ratio while enhancing scalability, decentralization, and transparency.

Algorithmic Stablecoin

A cryptocurrency that maintains its value through algorithms that adjust its supply, issuing more coins as the price rises and reducing supply when the price falls, to ensure stability.

All Risks Coverage

A broad insurance policy that covers a wide range of risks except for those explicitly excluded, offering customizable and comprehensive protection​.

All-Time-High (ATH)

Refers to the highest price or market capitalization that a cryptocurrency has reached in its history.

All-Time-Low (ATL)

Refers to the lowest price or market capitalization that a cryptocurrency has reached in its trading history.


Refers to the distribution or assignment of tokens or equity, which can be obtained through purchase, earning, or reserved for specific entities such as investors, teams, groups, or organizations.


Short for "alternative coin," denotes any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

The expected annual earnings from lending out digital assets, factoring in the interest or rewards earned. This rate, which is subject to daily adjustments, offers an estimate rather than a fixed return, reflecting the fluctuating nature of the crypto market's supply and demand for loans.

Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

A measure of the actual rate of return on an investment over a year, taking into account the effect of compounding interest. Compounding allows your investment to grow as interest is calculated not only on the initial principal but also on the accumulated interest from previous periods.


Application Programming Interface, is a component of a remote server that facilitates communication between applications by sending requests and receiving responses, acting as a bridge for data and device interaction.


A specialized blockchain framework tailored for specific applications, providing an optimized environment for their functionality while leveraging a foundational "Layer 1" blockchain for consensus.

Ask Me Anything (AMA)

A session where individuals, such as professionals or company representatives, invite participants to ask questions on a wide range of topics

Asset Swap

A financial deal involving the exchange of one asset for another to meet various investment objectives or requirements.

Atomic Swap

A decentralized process allows the direct exchange of cryptocurrencies across different blockchains without needing intermediaries or centralized exchanges.


A public event where assets or services are sold to the highest bidder through a competitive bidding process, typically facilitated by an auctioneer.

Automated Market Maker (AMM)

Integral to the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem, facilitating the automatic and permissionless trading of digital assets on decentralized exchange (DEX) protocols. They rely on liquidity pools rather than traditional order books and use constant mathematical formulas to set asset prices, eliminating the need for intermediaries in the trading process.


Bear Market

A prolonged period characterized by falling prices and a pervasive negative sentiment, indicating a downward trend across financial markets, including cryptocurrencies and traditional markets


A measurement standard which can be used to gauge the performance of a particular asset or investment portfolio.


BEP-20 is a token standard on the BNB Smart Chain, designed to extend and enhance the functionalities of the widely recognized ERC-20 standard from Ethereum.


A token standard on the Binance Smart Chain (BSC) designed for creating Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), offering a framework for the unique identification and ownership of digital assets.


Known as the Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade, is a significant Binance Evolution Proposal that implements a real-time burning mechanism on the BNB Smart Chain. This upgrade aims to enhance BNB tokenomics by making the burning process faster and more dynamic, thereby impacting the overall supply and value of Binance Coin (BNB).

Beta (Coefficient)

A tool used to measure the volatility of an asset in comparison to the volatility of a specific portfolio or market index. A beta greater than 1 indicates higher volatility, while a beta less than 1 indicates lower volatility compared to the market.

Beta (Release)

An early version of software or products that is still undergoing testing and refinement before being officially released to the public. Beta stage comes after the Alpha stage.

Bid Price

The amount a buyer is ready to pay for an asset, encompassing securities, commodities, services, or cryptocurrencies. It represents a buyer's valuation and willingness to purchase an asset at that specific price.


Spread Represents the discrepancy between the highest price a buyer is prepared to pay (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept (ask) for an asset on the order book. It serves as a key indicator of the asset's liquidity and market efficiency.


The first and most well-known cryptocurrency, created by an anonymous person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009.

Bitcoin Core

The reference implementation of the Bitcoin protocol, developed and maintained by a team of volunteer developers.

Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD)

A measure of Bitcoin's market capitalization as a percentage of the total cryptocurrency market capitalization, used to gauge Bitcoin's relative influence in the crypto market.

Bitcoin ETF

An exchange-traded fund (ETF) that tracks the price of Bitcoin, allowing investors to gain exposure to Bitcoin without directly owning the cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin Halving

An event that occurs approximately every four years in which the reward for mining new Bitcoin blocks is halved, reducing the rate at which new Bitcoins are created and influencing its supply and demand dynamics.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

A design document outlining proposed changes or enhancements to the Bitcoin protocol, subject to community discussion and consensus before implementation.

Bitcoin Maximalists

Individuals who strongly believe in the superiority of Bitcoin over other cryptocurrencies and advocate for its widespread adoption as the primary digital currency.

Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI)

A sentiment indicator created by Wall Street strategist Thomas Lee, which measures the level of investor sentiment regarding Bitcoin based on factors such as volatility and price.

Bitcoin NFTs

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) that are built on the Bitcoin blockchain, representing unique digital assets or collectibles with distinct ownership and provenance.

Bitcoin Pizza

A historic event in 2010 when the first real-world transaction using Bitcoin occurred, in which 10,000 bitcoins were exchanged for two pizzas.

Bitcoin Virtual Machine (BitVM)

A theoretical concept proposing a virtual machine environment for executing smart contracts and decentralized applications on the Bitcoin blockchain, similar to Ethereum's EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine).


An individual who supports or uses Bitcoin, often characterized by their belief in Bitcoin's principles of decentralization, censorship resistance, and financial sovereignty.


An online forum established by Bitcoin's creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, for discussions


A regulatory framework introduced by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) to govern virtual currency businesses operating in New York, requiring them to obtain a license to operate legally.


A payment service provider that enables merchants to accept Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as payment for goods and services, facilitating cryptocurrency transactions and conversions to fiat currency.


A unit of measurement used to represent fractions of a Bitcoin, with one Bitcoin typically divisible into 100 million bits.


A sequence of bits transmitted or processed as a single entity, often used in the context of data communication or digital signal processing.

Black Hat Hacker

A hacker who uses their technical knowledge and skills for malicious or criminal purposes, such as unauthorized access to computer systems, data theft, or network disruption.

Black Swan Event

An unpredictable and rare event with severe consequences that can disrupt financial markets or systems, coined from the book "The Black Swan" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb.

Black-Scholes Model

A mathematical formula used to price options contracts in finance, considering factors like the current price of the underlying asset, the strike price, time until expiration, risk-free interest rate, and asset volatility.


A cryptographic hash function used in some blockchain networks to secure and validate transactions.


A data structure containing a set of transactions that is cryptographically linked to the preceding block, forming a chain of blocks known as the blockchain.


Explorer A Blockchain webpage which allows users to browse information about blocks, transactions, balances, and transaction histories.

Block Lattice (Nano)

An interactive online tool that presents blockchain transactions, blocks, and related data in an accessible, user-friendly format. It indexes the blockchain's content into a searchable database, allowing users to retrieve detailed information about specific transactions, address balances, and the history of blocks on a given blockchain network, such as Ethereum's via Etherscan.

Block Header

A digital file that securely records a set of transactions over a certain period. Once filled and verified through consensus among nodes in the network, it's cryptographically sealed and linked to the previous block, forming a continuous chain.

Block Height

The number of blocks preceding a particular block in the blockchain, indicating its position in the chain.

Block Producer

A participant in a blockchain network responsible for creating and adding new blocks to the blockchain through the process of mining or block generation.

Block reward

A section in a blockchain block that contains crucial metadata, such as a summary of the transactions within the block. It serves as the block's unique identifier, hashed continuously to generate proof-of-work, which is fundamental for mining incentives and securing the blockchain network.

Block Size

The maximum amount of data that can be included in a single block on the blockchain, affecting transaction capacity and network scalability.

Block time

The number of blocks in the blockchain preceding a particular block, indicating its relative position in the chain.

Block Trade

A large-scale transaction typically involving a substantial quantity of assets, often executed outside of regular market trading hours.


A decentralized and distributed ledger technology that records transactions across multiple computers in a secure, transparent, and immutable manner.

Blockchain 1.0

Blockchain 1.0 is the first generation of blockchain technology, which focuses on cryptocurrency and decentralization.

Blockchain 2.0

Blockchain 2.0 is an extension to blockchain 1.0 as it introduced the concept of decentralization of business and markets through smart contracts and improved security and transparency.

Blockchain 3.0

Blockchain 3.0 is the final developmental stage of blockchain technology, which predicts global, institutional and enterprise adoption.

Blockchain Charity Foundation

The world's first decentralized charity platform to advocate the concept of 'blockchain for social good'.

Blockchain Mutual Credit

A framework within which stable cryptocurrencies can be derived from multilateral exchange networks.

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)

Enables isolated blockchains to operate as a fully decentralized settlement layer by securely anchoring transactions using a protocol that is universal.

Blockchain Tribalism

Refers to people in the blockchain or crypto community becoming ideologically aligned with a specific blockchain or crypto.

Blockchain Trilemma

The set of three issues that plague blockchains: decentralization, security and scalability.

Blockchain-As-a-Service (BaaS)

Offers the capabilities of blockchain technology to businesses but without the necessity of establishing and maintaining a dedicated blockchain framework.

Blockchain-Enabled Smart Locks

Solve many security issues and can be locked or unlocked based on the state of a variable that is embedded in a smart contract.


A data storage protocol that builds upon blockchain architecture. It utilizes a unique interconnected structure linking each block to the previous block and a random older block.

Bloom Filter

A probabilistic data structure used in computer science to test whether an element is a member of a set, with a low probability of false positives.

Blue-Chip Token

A cryptocurrency token associated with a well-established and reputable blockchain project or platform, often considered safer and more stable than other tokens.

Bluesky Crypto Protocol

A decentralized social network protocol, organized by Twitter, that allows several social networks to interact with other social networks, thanks to an open standard.


BNB (Binance Coin) is the native cryptocurrency of the Binance platform, used for various purposes including trading fee discounts, token sales, and ecosystem development.

Bollinger Band

A technical analysis tool consisting of a set of lines plotted two standard deviations away from a simple moving average, used to gauge market volatility and identify potential price trends.

Bonding Curve

A mathematical curve used in decentralized finance (DeFi) to determine the price of a token based on its supply and demand dynamics, typically used in automated market makers (AMMs) and token bonding mechanisms.


Automated software programs that perform tasks on the internet, including trading cryptocurrencies, interacting on social media platforms, and conducting web scraping activities.


A point in a system where the flow of data or resources is restricted, limiting the overall performance or throughput of the system.

Bounty/Bug Bounty

A reward offered by organizations or individuals to incentivize the discovery and reporting of bugs, vulnerabilities, or security weaknesses in software or systems.

Brain wallet

A method of storing cryptocurrency keys in the memory of the user's mind, typically as a passphrase or mnemonic, rather than in physical or digital form.

Brave Browser

A privacy-focused web browser that blocks ads and website trackers, offering users the option to earn cryptocurrency rewards for viewing privacy-respecting ads.

BRC-20 Tokens

BRC-20 is an experimental token standard that enables the minting and transferring of fungible tokens via the Ordinals protocol on the Bitcoin blockchain.

Break-Even Point (BEP)

The point where the total costs of an operation is equivalent to its current value or revenue.


A mechanism enabling the transfer of assets or data between different blockchain networks, facilitating interoperability and cross-chain interactions.

Browser Extension

A software module added to a web browser to enhance functionality or provide additional features.

Brute Force Attack (BFA)

A hacking method that systematically tries all possible combinations to crack passwords or encryption keys.


A rapid increase in asset prices, often driven by speculation, followed by a sharp decline in value.

Bug Exploit

Taking advantage of software vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access or manipulate systems.


A term emphasizing building and developing projects within the cryptocurrency community.


A person that is optimistic and confident that market prices will increase, this person is also known to be "bullish" about the market or price.

Bull market

A prolonged period characterized by increasing prices and a pervasive positive sentiment, indicating a upward trend across financial markets, including cryptocurrencies and traditional markets

Bull Run

A bull run (also known as a bull trend) is a period of time in the financial market during which the values of certain assets are constantly rising.

Bull Trap

A bull trap occurs when a steadily declining asset appears to reverse and go upward, but soon resumes its downward trend.

Burn/Burned Cryptocurrency tokens or coins are considered “burned” when they have been purposely and permanently removed from circulation.

Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD)

An enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to buy while prices are at a low point.

Buy Wall

A single huge buy order or the composition of multiple large buy orders at the same price in the order book of a particular market.

Byron Phase

Byron Phase is the first phase of Cardano that was released in September 2017.


A“low-level” computer language, processed by a computer, rather than a “high-level”, more human-readable, language. In Ethereum, higher-level Solidity is compiled into Ethereum bytecode, which is read by the Ethereum Virtual Machine

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is the property of a computer system that allows it to reach consensus regardless of the failure of some of its components.

Byzantine Generals’ Problem

A situation where communication that requires consensus on a single strategy from all members within a group or party cannot be trusted or verified.



C++ is an extension of the C programming language that allows cross-platform developments and capabilities.

Call Options

Call options are financial contracts that give an option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond, commodity or other asset at a specific price.

Candidate Block

A temporary block created by a mining node (miner) to add to the blockchain to receive the block rewards.


A candlestick chart is a graphing technique used to show changes in price over time. Each candle provides 4 points of information opening price, closing price, high, and low. Also known as “candles” for short.


Capital is most commonly defined as the large sum of money you would use to invest.

Capital Efficiencies

Capital efficiency is the ratio that compares the spending of a company on their growing revenue and how much they are receiving in return in the way of profits.

Capital Funds

Capital funding is the money provided in the form of debt or equity to operate a company.


Capitulation is the process of selling assets or cryptocurrencies at a significant loss because you have lost hope or belief that it will ever increase in price.


A blockchain platform designed to be an alternative to Ethereum. Cardano was developed through a peer-review process and implements certain technologies, such as proof-of-stake (PoS), in order to be more scalable.

Casascius Coin

A physical unit of Bitcoin that comes in the form of brass, silver or gold-plated coins.

Cascading Liquidations

Cascading liquidation refers to an event where liquidations pile on top of each other, resulting in a sudden price change.


Cash is the most liquid form of money: physical coins and banknotes in the most narrow sense of the term.


CashTokens are a new set of opcodes that extend the capabilities of Bitcoin Cash to support new financial primitives in the form of fungible and non-fungible tokens.

Casper (Ethereum)

Casper is a project designed to implement PoS into the Ethereum network.

Cathie Wood

Cathie Wood is a top stock investor and the founder of ARK Invest, a $60 billion (assets) firm that invests in cutting-edge technologies, including self-driving vehicles and genomics.


CeDeFi, or centralized decentralized finance, combines traditional centralized financial services with decentralized applications, merging conventional regulatory policies with modern financial products and infrastructure.


Censorship is the act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting speech or writing that is considered detrimental to the general public.

Censorship Resistance

Censorship resistance refers to the idea that no party can prevent anyone from participating in a given platform or network.

Central Bank

In contemporary economies, the central bank is responsible for the formulation and transmission of monetary policy, as well as for the regulation of member banks.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

CBDCs are digital currencies issued by a central bank whose status as legal tender depends on government regulation or law.

Central Ledger

A central ledger is a physical book or a computer file used to record transactions in a centralized manner.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A central processing unit (CPU) is the part of a computer that is in charge of interpreting and executing programs and coordinating the work of all other components.


A centralized organizational structure is one in which a single node or a small number of them are in control of an entire network.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

Centralized exchanges (CEXs) are a type of cryptocurrency exchange that is operated by a company that owns it in a centralized manner.

Centre (Consortium)

A member-based consortium by Coinbase and Circle to manage USD Coin (USDC).

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a financial product allowing customers to earn an interest rate premium after making a deposit.

Chain Reorganization

Chain reorganization is a process in blockchain technology that allows node operators to replace blocks and adopt new ones, in order to create new, longer chains of data.

Chain Split

Chain splits are another term used to describe cryptocurrency forks — the separation of a single original coin into several independently managed projects.


Change — a concept relevant to cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model — is the number of coins sent back to a user after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction.

Change Address

In cryptocurrencies, a change address is where the change from a transaction is temporarily stored before it is returned to the sender wallet.

Changpeng Zhao (CZ)

Changpeng Zhao (CZ) is the founder of crypto exchange Binance.


A chargeback is the return of money to the payer of a certain transaction, most commonly one that was made with a credit or debit card.


A language processing model developed by OpenAI. It represents a significant advancement in the field of natural language processing (NLP)

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) is one of the largest exchanges dealing in the trading of futures and options in the United States.

Chunk (NEAR)

Chunk is a fraction of each block produced as a result of sharding in the NEAR protocol.


A cipher is any algorithm that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information.


Ciphertext is a result of encryption that has been performed on plaintext through the usage of an algorithm

Circulating Supply

The best approximation of the number of coins that are circulating in the market and in the general public’s hands.


Refers to remote servers on the internet, providing computing resources.

Cloud Mining

Renting mining equipment hosted in data centers to mine cryptocurrencies remotely


Co-harvest: The weekly auctions that allow you to bid with $oraix for a potential discount on #USDC. By using $oraix for bids, some tokens are “locked away” or taken out of circulation. This could increase the value of the remaining $oraix in the long run.


A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet.


A coin can refer to a cryptocurrency that can operate independently or to a single unit of such cryptocurrency.

Coin Mixer

Coin mixers allow users to mix up transactions between different cryptocurrency addresses, so they become untraceable and cannot be followed back to the initial sender or receiver of the assets.

Coin-Margined Trading

Coin-margined trading is a form of trading where cryptocurrencies or any other form of digital asset serves as the base for all transaction and settlement purposes.


In mineable cryptocurrencies, a coinbase is the number of coins that are generated from scratch and awarded to miners for mining every new block.

Coinbase Transaction

The first transaction in a new block is a coinbase transaction in which the miner receives Bitcoins and mining fees.

Cold Storage

Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets.

Cold Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i.e. not connected to the internet.

Collaborative Venture Building (CVB)

Collaborative venture building (CVB) is a process where multiple individuals or organizations come together to create a new company or collaborate on a product.


Collateral is any asset that a lender accepts as a form of security to ensure that the borrower repays a loan.

Collateral Cap

Collateral cap is a security feature designed to diversify protocol-wide lending risk away from any one asset.

Collateral Factor

Collateral Factor is the maximum amount a user can borrow, represented in percentages, based on the total amount of assets supplied.

Collateral Margin

The collateral margin is the percentage of the total value of the investment that the investor must contribute in their own funds, while the remaining portion is financed by the broker.

Collateral Tokens

In cryptocurrency, collateral tokens are used as a risk mitigation asset when borrowing other types of crypto tokens.


Collateralization is the process of using one asset as insurance for securing a loan in a different asset.

Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO)

A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) represents a mixture of loans and assets that are offered to big investment firms with a lot of capital.

Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)

Held by locking collateral in smart contracts to generate stablecoins.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)

A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is essentially a bundle of numerous mortgages combined in a package and sold to investors.

Collateralized Stablecoin

A stablecoin that is entirely or almost entirely backed by collateral held in a reserve.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent federal regulatory agency responsible for regulation the U.S. derivatives market.

COMP Token

The native asset of the Compound protocol.

Composability (DeFi)

In DeFi, composability allows developers to combine different components of blockchain to create new applications and services.

Composable DeFi

Composable DeFi refers to the interoperability between different DeFi protocols. It enables a multitude of DeFi applications to work along and create a wide range of new use cases and financial products.

Composable Token

A composable token is an ERC-998 token, a standard extension to any non-fungible token, adding the ability for non-fungible tokens to own other non-fungible (ERC-721) and fungible (ERC-20) tokens.

Concentrated Liquidity

Concentrated liquidity greatly improves the capital efficiency for LPs and opens up the door to a whole number of liquidity provision strategies in the process.

Confirmation Time

The time elapsed when a transaction is submitted to the network and the time it is recorded into a confirmed block.


When multiple investment methods, technical indicators, or trading signals are combined to form a more reliable strategy.


Achieved when all participants of the network agree on the order and content of the blocks in the blockchain.

Consensus Algorithm

Mechanisms that help different computers in a blockchain network agree on what's true, even if some of them aren't playing fair.

Consensus Layer

The backbone of any blockchain network, performing the vital role of facilitating agreement among nodes on the true state of the blockchain.

Consensus Mechanism

An underlying technology behind the main functionalities of all blockchain technology, which makes them an essential operating feature of all cryptocurrencies.


A blockchain technology company that offers developer tools alongside enterprise solutions.


When a crypto asset trades between two levels, and the market shows indecisiveness about the next move.

Consortium Blockchain

A privately owned and operated blockchain where a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain.

Contango and Backwardation

Contango and backwardation are terms used to describe the relationship between the futures price of a commodity and its expected future spot price. They are useful metrics for trading, hedging and arbitrage.


A binding agreement between two parties. In cryptocurrencies, smart contracts execute functions on the blockchain.

Contract Account

An account that has a crypto balance and associated code.

Contract for Difference (CFD)

Outlines a buyer’s obligation to pay any price difference that might occur due to the shifting valuation of an asset.


A specialized client that allows nodes to verify the validity of their copy of the ledger against specific transactions.

Copy Trading

A method in which individuals replicate the trading strategies and activities of more experienced traders, often using platforms that allow for automatic replication of trades.

Core Wallet

A core crypto wallet is able to contain the entire blockchain, rather than just a piece of a blockchain.

Counter-Terrorism Financing

Refers to efforts to disrupt and cut off the money supply used to fund terrorist organizations and activities.

Counterparty Risk

Refers to the risk that one party involved in a financial transaction may default or fail to fulfill its contractual obligations, causing financial losses to the other party.

CPU Miner

Since mining requires computing power, the process of generating or mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit (CPU) is called CPU mining (or central processing unit mining).

Craig Wright

An Australian computer scientist associated with Bitcoin SV.


Personal information. Examples include username, password, email address, qualifications and many more.

Credit Rating

A measure that allows banks and lending institutions to predict how capable you are of repaying your debt.

Credit Risk

The number representing the possibility that a bank or lending institution will lose money because a borrower cannot repay their loan.

Cross Margin

Also known as "Spread Margin" is a margin method that utilizes the full amount of funds in the available balance to avoid liquidations. Any realized profit & loss statement (P&L) from other positions can aid in adding margin on a losing position.

Cross-Border Trading

Represents the opportunity to trade globally using a local currency.


A technology that enhances the interconnection between blockchain networks by allowing the exchange of information and value.

Cross-Chain Communication

Allows different protocols to verify data and transactions without the intervention of a centralized third-party service.

Cross-chain Contract Calls

Allow information, cryptocurrencies or NFTs, which would otherwise be constrained to their own network, to move freely between blockchains via smart contracts.

Crypto Bubble

A speculation in the cryptocurrencies and the price of cryptocurrencies would go extremely high before the bubble bursts.

Crypto Debit Card

A type of debit card that allows its holder to pay for goods and services using cryptocurrencies.

Crypto ETFs

Crypto ETFs allow investors to gain exposure to the price movements of cryptocurrencies without owning, or managing, them directly.

Crypto Fear and Greed Index

The Crypto Fear and Greed Index is a tool that uses several indicators to help measure the overall cryptocurrency market sentiment on a 0-100 score range.

Crypto Invoicing

The process of creating invoices for goods and services that need to be paid in cryptocurrencies.

Crypto Loan

A type of secured loan, similar to an auto or student loan, in which you commit to an asset as collateral in order to secure financing.

Crypto Protocol

A crypto protocol is a set of rules and procedures that govern behavior in a decentralized network.

Crypto Winter

A period in the crypto market when prices of major coins fall dramatically from all-time highs.


A digital currency that is secured by cryptography to work as a medium of exchange within a peer-to-peer (P2P) economic system.


The science of using mathematical theories and computation in order to encrypt and decrypt information.


The use of another party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.


Cryptology is the scientific study of cryptography as well as cryptanalysis.


A collection of Ethereum-based non-fungible tokens.


Currency is a medium of exchange that defines value.

Currency Crisis

Termed as a financial emergency in which a country's fiat currency loses value, and investors become cautious of retaining/investing in that country's assets.

Curve AMO

A software that uses multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker (AMM) service focused on stablecoins (cryptocurrencies programmed to mimic other assets).


Custodial cryptocurrency businesses are the ones that are in possession of their customers’ funds for the duration of the use of their services.


Responsible for safely holding assets for an institution or individual for a variety of purposes.


A financial institution's legal capacity to keep and preserve financial assets for its clients to avoid asset theft or loss.


The cypherpunk movement promotes the use of cryptography and other privacy-focused technologies to advance social and political progress.


Daedalus Wallet

A multi-platform, open-source, hierarchical-deterministic wallet that lets you generate an endless number of keys from a single seed.


A process operating in the background waiting for a specific event or condition in order to be activated.

Daily Active Addresses (DAA)

Refers to the number of addresses which fulfills the defined activity parameter on a given blockchain.


Brings a new approach to sharding and plays a crucial role in optimizing data management and transaction processing within the Ethereum network.

DAO Summoning

DAO summoning is the act of creating or forming a DAO. The term is typically used in the context of forming a new Moloch DAO, though it can also refer to the formation of any new DAO.

Dark Web

A portion of the internet existing on darknets not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations.


RenVM is driven by Darknodes, a decentralized network of computers. In exchange for compensation, they offer their computing power and storage space to everyone with certain conditions.

Data Privacy

Refers to the area of data protection and security that is responsible for the handling of sensitive data.

Data Scraping

Also called "web scraping" is the process of extracting information from a website into a spreadsheet or a local file on your computer or database.

Data Validation

The process of clarifying the accuracy, integrity and quality of a set of data before it is used.

Date of Launch

A term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale.

Day Trading

The practice of frequently buying and selling assets in order to make a profit on intraday changes in their price.

Dead Cat Bounce

A temporary recovery in prices after a prolonged decrease.

Dead Coin

A cryptocurrency that is no longer in existence.

Death Cross

A bearish technical trading indicator that occurs when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average, indicating a big sell-off.

Decentralized API (dAPI)

API services that are intrinsically interoperable with blockchain technology are known as decentralized application programming interfaces (dAPIs). This is an invention of the API3 protocol.

Decentralized Application (DApp)

Applications that run on a P2P network of computers rather than a central database. Users can freely connect to DApps using crypto wallets.

Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative (DAC)

An organization that is controlled by shareholders rather than a central authority.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

A method for decentralized funding of projects that introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)

A system of hard-coded rules that define which actions a decentralized organization will take.

Decentralized Currency

Decentralized currency refers to bank-free methods of transferring wealth or ownership of any other commodity without needing a third party.

Decentralized Database

A decentralized database is a modern-day storage solution that combines decentralized technologies with cutting-edge computing to randomly store data and files across multiple nodes, delivering high security and unmatched availability while being completely censorship-resistant.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A peer-to-peer exchange allowing users to trade cryptocurrency without the need for an intermediary.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

The ecosystem comprised of decentralized financial applications developed on top of blockchain networks.

Decentralized Governance

The procedures through which a platform's disintermediated, equitable management is carried out for blockchain networks and dApps.

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

An ID that can be issued by an autonomous, independent, and decentralized platform that acts as a proof of ownership of digital identity.

Decentralized Indexes

A type of investment vehicle that tracks the performance of multiple cryptocurrencies or digital assets traded on decentralized exchanges.

Decentralized Marketplace

Built on blockchain technology, allows traders or investors to trade with each other while eliminating middlemen. They are available globally and require no intermediaries to make trades possible.

Decentralized Network

A collection of interconnected but distinct elements that interact with one another without the need for a centralized power or server.

Decentralized Order Book

A trading mechanism where buy and sell orders are matched through a distributed network of nodes, rather than being centralized in a single location or controlled by a single entity.

Decentralized Payment Network

A system where users, customers and vendors can exchange money without having to trust any third party to keep the network secure and operational.

Decentralized Social Media

A social media platform that is based on blockchain.

Decentralized Stablecoin

Fully transparent, non-custodial with no or partial third-party control.


The process of transforming encrypted data back into a format that is readable by a user or machine.

Deep Web

The part of the internet that is hidden from regular search engines.

DeFi Aggregator

A DeFi aggregator brings together trades across various DeFi platforms into one place.

DeFi Degens

DeFi degenerates. A subculture associated with a disreputable corner of decentralized finance known for pump and dump schemes.


A decline in the general level of prices for goods and services in an economy.


Cryptotrading without Due Diligence and research - basically gambling

Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)

Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) is a second-layer consensus security mechanism, designed to protect blockchains from 51% attacks threatening the integrity of the network.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)

An alternative to the Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms.


The process of removing an asset/stock/cryptocurrency from a trading exchange is called delisting.


Demurrage is a fee charged for using an asset beyond a certain time period.

Dencun Upgrade

Dencun is essentially the fusion of two separate upgrades - 'Deneb' and ‘Cancun’ together targeting improvements across Ethereum's consensus and execution layers.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack

A denial-of-service attack aims to temporarily make a computer or network service unavailable to its intended users.


Learn about causes, effects, and preventive measures to avoid a depeg and ensure stablecoin reliability and trust in the cryptocurrency market.

Depth Chart

A graph that plots the requests to buy (bids) and the requests to sell (asks) on a chart, based on limit orders. The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction.


A financial instrument deriving its value from the value of an underlying asset.

Derivatives Market

A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.

Design Flaw Attack

An attack in which a malicious user purposely creates a smart-contract, decentralized market, or other software with knowledge of certain flaws in order to trick individuals interacting within the permissionless environment.

Desktop Wallet

A desktop wallet is a type of software wallet that is usually non-custodial.

Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet in which keys and addresses are created from a single seed.


This is shorthand for the Ethereum Developers’ Conference.

Dex Aggregator

A relatively new type of blockchain-based service that allow cryptocurrency traders to benefit from a large variety of financial tools in a single interface, often providing better liquidity and prices on different crypto pairs.

Dharma Protocol

An open-source stack for building debt markets on Ethereum.

Diamond Hands

Diamond hands refers to holding a financial asset and not selling it, regardless of its volatility.


In cryptocurrency, difficulty indicates the difficulty required to mine a block. Learn more at Binance Academy.

Difficulty Bomb

The term 'difficulty bomb' denotes the increase in mining difficulty in Ethereum, as part of its migration to Proof of Stake.


Digital technologies are these electronic tools that have the ability to generate, store or even process data.

Digital Art

Digital art is art and media that is made by using digital technology.

Digital asset

A digital asset refers to the digital representation of something of value.

Digital Asset Custodian

A digital asset custodian is responsible to look after digital assets on behalf of an investor or client.

Digital Asset Ecosystem

Digital asset ecosystem is a term that defines everything involved in the crypto space. From NFTs to futures, this terms sums up all the facilities offered and elements associated with the crypto universe.

Digital Barter Economy

Eliminating the inherent weaknesses of the traditional barter economy, a digital barter economy makes it easier to trade both physical and virtual items anywhere in the world.

Digital Commodity

A commodity that exists digitally, as opposed to in “meatspace.”

Digital Currency

A currency that exists only in digital form, as opposed to traditional physical currencies.

Digital Dollar

The term "digital dollar" refers to a possible digital currency issued by the US central bank (CBDC).

Digital Identity

Information used by a person or entity to identify themselves to a computer or network.

Digital Signature

A method for proving the authenticity of a digital communication.

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a signature algorithm, not an encryption algorithm, and uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures.


In cryptocurrency context, dildos are vertical lines (candles) on graphs that showcase the min and mix exchange rate of a cryptocurrrency in question.


A dip is when markets experience a short or protracted downturn.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A way of structuring data, often used for data modelling, and increasingly as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies.


Discord is a web-based communication tool or application primarily built to enable communication between gamers.

Distributed Consensus

Collective agreement reached among nodes in a network.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

An attempt by a bad actor to disrupt the operation of an application, server or network by flooding it with traffic.

Distributed Ledger

Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

A database that is shared by multiple participants, in multiple places. The basis for blockchains.

Distributed Network

A network in which the data and applications are dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to one location.

Distribution Phase

The distribution phase is the opposite of the accumulation phase. In this phase, the market moves sideways and is range-bound after experiencing an extended uptrend.


When the market price of an asset and a technical indicator (e.g. RSI, Volume, MACD) are heading in opposite directions.


The allocation of funds across different types of assets and jurisdictions in order to reduce the overall risks.

Diversified Proof of Stake

Diversified Proof of Stake is a variation of the popular PoS consensus mechanism that allows multiple assets to be staked on a single blockchain.

Do Your Own Research (DYOR)

A valuable piece of advice. It's always wise to research a coin or token yourself instead of following what others say.

Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA)

Investing fixed dollar amounts over regular periods of time regardless of the price of the asset.


A measure of Bitcoin's value in the context of the larger cryptocurrency market.

Dorian Nakamoto

Japanese-American physicist who some believe to be Satoshi Nakamoto.


A new piece of crypto slang, used to describe the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems in just one word.

Double Spend Attack

A practice in the world of digital currencies where a user gains the ability to spend the same cryptocurrency more than once.

Double Spending

The potential for a digital currency to be spent twice.

dPoSec (Distributed Proof of Security)

A consensus mechanism designed to ensure that the blockchain network continues to operate even if a third of the nodes are compromised. It addresses the key challenges faced by the existing distributed network of nodes and validators.


The maximum reduction in value from the peak value for an investment or fund that has occurred over a period of time.


A token standard on the Dogecoin network that allows developers and users to create fungible assets within Dogecoin's ecosystem. It is similar to ERC-20 on Ethereum.


A Bitcoin improvement proposal that aims to scale Bitcoin and add new features using sidechains.

Dual Governance

Refers to a two-pronged system of decision-making in a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), where two distinct parties are involved in running the organization rather than one larger body.

Dual-Token Economy/Model (Two-Token Economy)

In the world of blockchain, a dual-token economy or model means a project with two tokens, one of which is used for utility inside the network and the other one as security to raise funds for the crypto project.


A collective market sell-off that occurs when large quantities of a particular cryptocurrency are sold in a short period of time.

Dust Transactions

Miniscule amounts of Bitcoin in a wallet — with a value that would be outweighed by the cost of a transaction fee.

Dusting Attack

An attack that aims to uncover the identity of a wallet’s owner, information that can subsequently be used in phishing scams.

DYCO (Dynamic Coin Offering)

A new crowdfunding model developed by DAO Maker that employs utility tokens that are backed by USD.


Eclipse Attack

When the majority of peers on the network are malicious and monopolize the network in order to prevent specific nodes from receiving information from honest nodes.

Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)

An economic theory stating financial markets reflect all available information on the price of assets at any time.


A blockchain protocol that introduced the concept of "restaking collective" for Ethereum.


EIP-1559 is an upgrade to the Ethereum network that simplified the fee market mechanism.


EIP-4844, also known as proto-danksharding, is a proposed upgrade that focuses on reducing Ethereum’s fees and increasing transaction throughput.

Electrum Wallet

A Bitcoin wallet for Windows, macOS and Linux with a simple interface.


Short for “explain like I’m five” — a plea for simplicity when crypto concepts are being explained.

Elliott Waves

The Elliott Wave Theory is an essential tool for many stock and crypto market traders.

EMA (Exponential Moving Average)

Exponential moving average (EMA) is a technical indicator that highlights the recent price changes and data points of an asset/stock/cryptocurrency while keeping the older chart observations intact.

Email Spoofing

Email spoofing is a technique that is used in order to trick users into thinking that a message actually came from a different person.


The speed at which new coins are produced and released.


Encryption is a method through which information can be made into code.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)

The industry’s first global standards organization to deliver an open, standards-based architecture and specification to accelerate the adoption of Enterprise Ethereum.


Discover the versatility of ERC-1155 tokens. Ideal for gaming, digital collectibles and managing multiple token types efficiently.


A technical standard used to issue and implement tokens on the Ethereum blockchain proposed in November 2015 by Fabian Vogelsteller.


An experimental token standard blending fungibility and non-fungibility.


An Ethereum based non-fungible token. This means that each token is unique and as a result, not interchangeable.


ERC-777 is a tradable token standard spun out from ERC-20 to enable a new way to engage with a token contract while staying backward compatible.


ERC-827 is an ETH token standard that addresses the existing limitations of ERC 20 when it comes to the implementation of calls in transfers and approvals in particular.


ERC-884 facilitates the creation of tradable ERC-20 tokens, each of which symbolizes a numberless share issued by a Delaware corporation.


ERC-948 is a new Ethereum token protocol that is designed to connect subscription businesses with customers and allows for subscription-based transactions.


A financial instrument where assets or cash are held by a third party while a buyer and a seller complete a deal.


Electronic sports, commonly known as e-sports, is a term used for digital gaming competition, in which players battle against each other in an individual or team-based format often in a competition or event that offers huge monetary rewards to the winners. Some e-sports games are also available in a single-player mode.


Learn what ETFs are and explore their role in the cryptocurrency market: benefits, impacts, and challenges for investors and the financial ecosystem.


ETH/BTC is a popular cryptocurrency trading pair that denominates the price of Ethereum in Bitcoin.


Ethash is the algorithm utilized for the proof of work mining Ethereum and ETH-based cryptocurrencies.


The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum.


A public blockchain network and decentralized software platform upon which developers build and run applications. As it is a proper noun, it should always be capitalized.

Ethereum Classic (ETC)

Emerged from the Ethereum hard fork that happened as a result of the 2016 DAO hack. Unlike ETH, ETC still uses Proof of Work.

Ethereum Foundation

A non-profit organization dedicated to the development, improvement, and promotion of the Ethereum blockchain

Ethereum Name Service

A protocol, managed by a DAO, which assigns human-readable and easy-to-remember addresses to Ethereum addresses and assets, homologous to the traditional internet’s DNS.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing-complete programmable machine that executes smart contracts, which are typically coded in Solidity.


A popular website for analyzing activity on the Ethereum blockchain. See ‘blockchain explorer’.


A marketplace for cryptocurrencies where users can buy and sell coins.



A deceptive market move that triggers traders to take action based on false signals, often leading to losses.

Falling Knife

A market term describing a rapid and steep decline in asset prices, often considered risky to catch or attempt to buy at the bottom.

Fan Tokens

Digital tokens representing fan ownership or engagement with sports teams, allowing fans to participate in club-related activities or decisions.

Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO)

The feeling of fear and anxiety that you might be missing out on a potentially profitable opportunity.

Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD)

A strategy aimed at spreading negative or misleading information to create fear and uncertainty among customers, traders, or investors.


Government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity but by the issuing government's authority.

Fill Or Kill Order (FOK)

An order type in trading where the entire order must be executed immediately or canceled.


The irreversible confirmation of a transaction or block on a blockchain network, indicating that it cannot be reversed or modified.

First-Mover Advantage (FMA)

The competitive advantage gained by being the first to enter a market or introduce a new product or technology.

Fiscal Policy

Government policies related to taxation, spending, and borrowing, aimed at influencing economic conditions and achieving specific objectives.


The moment when Litecoin (LTC) surpassed Bitcoin Cash (BCH) in terms of market capitalization


A research and development organization focused on mitigating the negative impact of front-running and MEV (Miner Extractable Value) on blockchain networks.


The moment when/if Ethereum (ETH) surpasses Bitcoin (BTC) in terms of market capitalization

Forced Liquidation

When a trader's leveraged position is forcibly closed as a result of it not fulfilling the necessary margin requirements.

Forex (FX)

Stands for Foreign Exchange Markets - a global market for the trading of fiat currencies.


A divergence in the blockchain network by creating a split in the blockchain's transaction history. There are two types of forks - soft and hard.

Formal Verification

Using mathematically rigorous proofs to ensure certain properties of cryptographic algorithms and blockchain mechanisms

Fraud Proof

A fraud proof is a cryptographical evidence that a verifier submits to challenge a transaction's validity. They are widely used for blockchain scalability.


“Fren” is an online slang term used to address someone in a friendly way. It developed in digital communities and is widely used in the crypto community.

Full Node

A computer that fully implements the entirety of rules of an underlying blockchain network and completely validates transactions and blocks on a blockchain.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)

Evaluating an asset based on its underlying characteristics and traits as an effort towards arriving at an intrinsic value of the asset.


The property of an asset whose individual units are indistinguishable from each other in terms of value and functionality.

Futures Contract

A standardized version of forward contracts that are used as a legal agreement to buy or sell an asset in the future at an agreed upon price and date.



A section of DeFi that merges blockchain technology and gaming, offering play-to-earn incentives through NFTs and cryptocurrencies.

Gas Limit

The maximum price a cryptocurrency user is willing to pay as a fee when sending a transaction, or performing a smart contract function.

General Public License

License allowing users to copy and modify software, but requires the works to be distributed under the same license.

Genesis Block

The first ever block recorded on its respective blockchain network, also referred to as Block 0 or Block 1.


A site/system/folder/repository where a team can share, collaborate, and save their open source or propietary code.


An optimal state in economics where conditions are neither too hot nor too cold.

GM (Good Morning)

Stands for "Good Morning," and its use in the crypto community reflects the inclusive and collaborative nature of the space.


A nickname for Chung Dao, CEO and Co-Founder of Oraichain Labs, used by the early community members to recognize his influential leadership.

Golden Cross

A bullish chart pattern where a shorter-term moving average crosses above a longer-term moving average.

Gossip Protocol

A particular method of asynchronous peer-to-peer communication between computer nodes of a distributed system.


A small denomination of Ether. It is widely used as a measure of gas prices. 1,000,000,000 wei = 1 Giga wei (Gwei)



A blockchain hackathon is a competition where participants build sample applications atop a blockchain ecosystem.


An individual that has an advanced understanding of computer systems and networks, including programmers and cybersecurity experts.

Haha Money Printer Go Brrrrr

Haha Money Printer Go Brrrrr is meme created in response to the Federal Reserve's 2020 plan to print money.


Halving is a process that reduces the block reward of a PoW crypto like Bitcoin (BTC) to half. The next halving of Bitcoin is expected around 2024.

Hard Cap

The maximum amount of funds a project intends to raise during their Initial Coin Offering (ICO) or alternative fundraising event.

Hard Landing

A situation where an economy rapidly transitions from growth to slow growth or recession.


The output produced by a hash function after a piece of data is mapped. May also be referred to as hash value, hash code, or digest.

Hash Rate

The speed at which a computer or mining hardware is able to calculate new hashes. Usually measured in hashes per second.

Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC)

Refers to a special feature that is used to create smart contracts that are able to modify payment channels.

Herd Instinct

The tendency of some traders to follow the actions of the majority.

High-Frequency Trading (HFT)

A type of algorithmic trading that involves the execution of a large number of orders in fractions of a second.


A typo of 'Hold' originating from bitcointalk that has also been retrofitted to be an acronym for Hold on for Dear Life - to maintain ownership of coins and not sell.


A mechanism used in computer security used to detect or counteract unauthorized access of information systems.


Iceberg Order

A conditional order to buy or sell a large amount of assets in smaller predetermined quantities in order to conceal the total order quantity.


The inability to change or be changed. One of the core features behind Bitcoin and blockchain technology.


A financial instrument used to track the price value of a given asset or basket of assets

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

A fundraising method in which new projects will sell their cryptocurrency to investors.

Initial DEX Offering (IDO)

An Initial DEX Offering (IDO) is a type of blockchain fundraising method. It’s a public token sale conducted directly on a decentralized exchange (DEX).

Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)

A fundraising method designed to reduce the risk for token purchasers by introducing a trusted intermediary between the project team and the user.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

Refers to the moment a private company starts offering its shares to the public for the first time.


A piece of data attached to individual units of cryptocurrency.


To provide an instance of or concrete evidence in support of (a theory, concept, claim, or the like).

Integrated Circuit (IC)

A small chip, typically made of silicon, that holds a set of electronic parts such as transistors, resistors or capacitors.

Interest Rates

Interest rates can refer either to the cost of borrowing money or the return earned on an investment, usually expressed as a percentage of the principal.


A concept of allowing blockchains to be compatible with each other and build upon each other's features and use-cases.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

An open-source project building a protocol for distributed content storage and access.


A function, quantity, or property that remains unchanged when a specified transformation is applied.


An acronym which stands for “I owe you” and refers to an informal document that acknowledges a debt one party owes to another.

Isolated Margin

The margin balance allocated to a position. Traders can manage risk by restricting the amount allocated to each position.


Generation of a new cryptocurrency which occurs in a variety of different ways, depending on parameters specified by the creators.



A versatile cryptographic function. It can also be used for authentication, (authenticated) encryption and pseudo-random number generation.

Know Your Customer (KYC)

A standard procedure in the finance industry which allows companies to identify their customers and comply with KYC AML laws



The delay or time taken for data or transactions to be processed and confirmed on a blockchain network.

Law of Demand

An economic principle stating that, all else being equal, the quantity demanded of a good decreases as the price increases, and vice versa.

Layer 1

The foundational blockchain protocol, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, responsible for processing and validating transactions.

Layer 2

A secondary framework or protocol built on top of a Layer 1 blockchain, designed to increase scalability and efficiency.


A physical book or a digital computer file where monetary and financial transactions are tracked and recorded.

Leveraged Tokens

Tokens that offer a leveraged position in a certain asset, allowing for greater exposure to price movements without directly holding the asset.


A collection of stable resources, which may include executable files, documentation, message templates, and written code.

Lightning Network

A Layer 2 solution for Bitcoin designed to enable fast, low-cost transactions by processing them off-chain.

Limit Order

An order to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specific price or better, allowing the trader to control the maximum or minimum price.


An open-source operating system, created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds, that is widely used in various technology environments, including blockchain nodes and servers.

Liquid Staking

A form of staking that allows users to stake their assets and earn rewards while retaining liquidity in the form of a liquid token.


The ease with which an asset can be bought or sold in the market without causing significant price movement.

Liquidity Crisis

A situation where there is insufficient liquidity in a market, making it difficult to execute trades and potentially causing asset prices to fluctuate wildly.

Liquidity Provider

An entity or individual that supplies liquidity to a market by providing buy and sell orders, helping maintain smooth market operations.

Liquidity Ratios

Financial metrics that measure a company or market's ability to meet short-term obligations, often used in financial analysis.


The process of making a cryptocurrency or token available for trading on an exchange, allowing users to buy and sell the asset.



The operational blockchain network where actual transactions are being broadcasted, verified, and recorded, as opposed to testnet, which is for testing and development.

Mainnet Swap

The process of transferring tokens from a project's original network to its mainnet, often involving the exchange of one token for another.


In decentralized finance (DeFi), Maker is a lending platform that issues the DAI stablecoin. The term can also refer to the participant who provides liquidity by creating an offer on a trading platform.


Malicious software designed to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems, networks, and data.

Margin Trading

Trading with borrowed funds, allowing a trader to control a larger position in an asset than they could with their own capital.

Market Capitalization

The total value of a cryptocurrency, calculated by multiplying the current price by the total supply of the coin or token.

Market Momentum

The trend of an asset's price movement in a particular direction, either upwards or downwards, often influenced by market sentiment.

Market Order

An order to buy or sell a cryptocurrency immediately at the current market price.


A full node that supports a blockchain network by providing advanced services such as transaction validation, governance, and security.

Matching Engine

The software in a trading platform that matches buy and sell orders based on price and quantity.

Maximum Supply

The total number of coins or tokens that will ever exist in a cryptocurrency's lifetime, as defined by its protocol.


Short for "memory pool," it is a pool of unconfirmed transactions waiting to be processed and included in a block on the blockchain.

Merged Mining

Mining two different cryptocurrencies simultaneously using the same mining process, usually when one blockchain is secured by another's hash power.

Merkle Tree

A data structure used to efficiently verify the integrity of data in a blockchain by organizing data into a tree of hashes.


Data about data, providing additional information such as descriptions, file types, and other attributes about a particular dataset or asset.


A virtual environment or world where users can interact, engage, and transact in real-time using digital avatars and virtual reality.


Small, low-value financial transactions that are often used in online gaming and digital platforms.


The process of validating and recording transactions on a blockchain by solving cryptographic puzzles, often rewarded with newly created cryptocurrency.

Mining Farm

A collection of mining hardware set up to mine cryptocurrency, usually operating 24/7 and located in areas with low-cost electricity.

Mining pool

A collective of miners who combine their computing power to increase the chances of successfully mining blocks and sharing rewards.


The process of creating new coins or tokens in a blockchain network, often following specific rules set by the network's protocol.


A reference to the now-deprecated Ethereum desktop wallet and browser developed by the Ethereum Foundation.

Monetary Policy

The strategies and rules governing the supply of money and interest rates in an economy, including those applied to cryptocurrencies.

Monitoring Tag

A tag or label used in software or systems to track and monitor specific activities or data.


A slang term used in the crypto market to describe a rapid increase in the price of a cryptocurrency, indicating significant gains.

MSP (Membership Service Provider)

A role in some blockchain networks (e.g., Hyperledger Fabric) that provides identity management and access control.


A security feature requiring multiple private keys to authorize a transaction, providing added safety against unauthorized access or theft.


NFT Floor Prices

The lowest price at which a non-fungible token (NFT) can be bought in a particular collection or marketplace, reflecting the minimum entry point for new buyers.

NFT Mystery Boxes

Packages that contain a random and unknown assortment of NFTs, often sold as a promotion or event to create excitement and surprise for buyers.


An acronym for "Not Gonna Make It," used in the crypto community to express skepticism or pessimism about a project or individual's potential for success.


A computer running a blockchain client that participates in the network by validating and relaying transactions, storing a copy of the blockchain, and supporting network security.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

A unique digital asset representing ownership of a specific item or piece of content on a blockchain, such as digital art, collectibles, or virtual real estate.


Abbreviation for ‘number only used once’, generated for verification purposes to prevent replaying past transactions.


Oauth protocol

A standard authorization framework that allows third party services to keep and distribute users information without exposing their password

OCO Order

An order type in trading that stands for "One Cancels the Other." It involves placing two orders simultaneously, with one order executed if the other is canceled.


Refers to transactions or activities that occur outside of the blockchain network, which can help improve scalability and reduce fees.

Offshore account

An account that is registered in a jurisdiction that is different to the jurisdiction of the holder's citizenship.

Ommer (aka Uncle)

A block which has been completely mined but has not yet been added to the Blockchain.


Refers to transactions and activities directly recorded on the blockchain, ensuring immutability, transparency, and verification.

On-chain governance

A decentralized framework that allows the users of a blockchain network to vote on any updates or improvements of the underlying protocol.

Open-Source Software (OSS)

A type of software released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.


A data source or feed from a third party used for determining outcomes for smart contracts

Oraichain Mainnet 2.0

AI Layer 1 for Data Economy and Oracle Services

Oraichain Mainnet 3.0

AI Layer 1 with Trustworthy Proofs for Web3 Mass Adoption

Oraichain wallet

Deprecated version of Owallet, the native wallet for Oraichain.

ORC-20 Tokens

ORC-20 tokens run on the Bitcoin blockchain and are represented as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) files inscribed onto satoshis with an Ordinal serial number, similar to BRC-20 tokens.

Order Book

A list of buy and sell orders for an asset, organized by price level, used on exchanges to facilitate trading.

Orderer Network

A component of a permissioned blockchain network responsible for maintaining the order of transactions.


The position of a transaction or block within a sequence.

Orphan Block

An orphan block is a block that has been solved within the blockchain network but was not accepted by the network.


The Universal Wallet for Multichain Web3 Interoperability, the first native Oraichain wallet with the mission to help users manage cross-chain assets.


P2P (Peer to Peer)

A decentralized network architecture allowing two or more participants to interact directly without the need for intermediaries.

Paper Wallet

A physical document containing a cryptocurrency wallet's public and private keys, often generated offline for security.


A method for processing multiple transactions at the same time.

Passive Management

An investing strategy that doesn’t rely on active market exposure but rather tracks an existing economic index.

Pegged Currency

A currency where the price is designed to remain the same as a designated asset. For example: 1 USDT is pegged to 1 USD. Also referred to as a stablecoin.

Permissioned Ledger

As opposed to a public blockchain, a blockchain system with restricted access, commonly used in private or enterprise settings. For example, Quorum or Hyperledger Besu are permissioned ledgers that can be more easily set up for large enterprises.

Permissionless Blockchain

An open blockchain network allowing anyone to join, participate, and transact without requiring approval. For example, the public Ethereum blockchain is a permissionless ledger which anyone can access.


A malicious attack where a bad actor will attempt to obtain the credentials of a user in order to gain unauthorised access into their account.


An Ethereum off-chain scaling solution which may allow Etherum to greatly increase the transactions per second capablities.

Polkadot Crowdloan

The process of staking Polkadot (DOT) tokens to support specific projects in the Polkadot Slot Auction. In return, participants can receive rewards from the projects.

Ponzi Scheme

Fraudulent investment scam promising high returns with little risk, funded from the contributions of new investors.

Price Action

Movement of a security's price plotted over time, used by technical analysts to forecast future price movements.

Private Blockchain

Blockchain network with restricted access, commonly used within organizations or closed systems.

Private Currency

Currency issued by a private entity and used only within its closed ecosystem or network.

Private Key

Secret, alphanumeric password allowing access to a cryptocurrency wallet, enabling the signing of transactions.

Private Sale

Fundraising round where a project sells tokens or coins directly to institutional investors or accredited participants.

Progressive Web application (PWA)

Application software delivered through the web, built using common web technologies including HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Proof of Activity

Consensus mechanism combining proof of work and proof of stake, where both miners and stakeholders are involved in the validation process.

Proof of Attendance Protocol (POAP)

Token given to participants attending an event or activity, recorded on the Ethereum blockchain.

Proof of Authority (PoA)

Consensus algorithm granting specific individuals or organizations the right to create new blocks.

Proof of Burn

Miners send coins to an inactive address essentially burning them. The burns are then recorded on the blockchain and the user is rewarded.

Proof of Reserves (PoR)

Proof of Reserves (PoR) is a verification proving an exchange maintains funds to cover users' assets.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

A consensus mechanism that reward block validators according to the amount of coins they have at stake.

Proof of Staked Authority (PoSA)

Proof of Staked Authority merges Proof of Stake and Proof of Authority, enhancing blockchain security through its equal staking and balanced validation system.

Proof of Work (PoW)

A consensus mechanism where miners use special equipment to solve cryptographic puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks.


Set of rules defining how data is transmitted and received between different points in a network.


Origin or source of something, often used in blockchain to trace the history of assets.


Sequence of numbers that appears to be random but is generated by an algorithm with a deterministic outcome.


Real-time messaging pattern where senders of messages (publishers) do not program the messages to be sent directly to specific receivers (subscribers).

Public Blockchain

Blockchain network where anyone can join, participate, and transact without requiring permission.

Public Key

Cryptographic key used in public-key cryptography, typically used to encrypt messages and verify digital signatures.


Pump-and-Dump: A fraudulent practice in financial markets, including cryptocurrencies, where the price of an asset is artificially inflated through misleading statements or coordinated buying. Once the price peaks, the manipulators sell off their holdings, causing the price to collapse and leaving other investors with losses.


Quantum Computing

Quantum computing works using particles that can be in superposition. These particles represent qubits instead of bits and can take the value of 1, 0 or both simultaneously.


Race attack

A particular kind of a double-spend attempt. It requires the recipient to accept payment for unconfirmed transactions.


A type of malware which takes over your computer and threatens to destroy or reveal files unless a ransom is paid.

Real World Assets (RWAs)

Tangible, physical assets with intrinsic value, such as real estate, commodities, or art that are tokenized for use on the blockchain.


A slang term used to define someone or something that has been destroyed or experienced catastrophic failure and a synonym for liquidated

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

A technical indicator that measures market momentum & used to identify overbought and oversold conditions.


A term in Technical Analysis (TA) refering the point on a price chart at which an upward price trajectory is impeded by an overwhelming inclination to sell the asset. If a market price is nearing a resistance level, a trader may opt to close their position and take the profit, rather than risk the price falling back.

Return on Investment (ROI)

A measure used in order to assess the efficiency of an investment. The ratio between net profit and net cost.

Risk Premium

The additional compensation investors expect in return for taking on higher levels of risk.


Outlines a strategic step-by-step process of the objectives, milestones, goals, and expected outcomes of a cryptocurrency project.

Routing Attack

An attack on the Internet Service Provider level to affect uptime or participation in a web-enabled system, such as a blockchain.

Rug pull

A rug pull in the crypto industry is when a development team suddenly abandons a project and sells or removes all its liquidity.



The name for the Oraichain community, combining “Samurai” and “ORAI” to symbolize strength and dedication.

Sandwich Trading

Also known as sandwich attacks or sandwiching, is a trading strategy or manipulation technique in the cryptocurrency markets.


The smallest unit of a bitcoin, as defined by the Bitcoin protocol. It equals one-hundred-millionth of a bitcoin or 0.00000001 BTC.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The name used by the pseudonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin, authored the Bitcoin white paper, and created and deployed Bitcoin's original reference implementation.

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU)

An emergency insurance fund created by Binance in 2018.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

An independent governmental agency responsible for regulating securities markets.

Security Audit

A systematic analysis to evaluate how safe a system, smart contract, or blockchain is agaisnt attacks or technical failures.

Seed Phrase/Secret Recovery Phrase

A sequence of random words that stores the data required to access or recover cryptocurrency. Seed phrases are generated by crypto wallets and are crucial for the safety of digital assets.

Seed Tag

A tag used to classify cryptocurrencies that are usually in their initial stages of development and may not yet have a working product or established user base.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Often abbreviated to SegWit, is an update to the Bitcoin protocol designed to address the network’s scalability and security issues.

Selfish Mining

The strategic withholding and releasing of blocks by a miner in order to gain a competitive advantage over the network.

Sell Wall

A very large limit sell order or a cumulation of sell orders at the same price level on an order book for an asset.


The overall attitude of a community in regards to a cryptocurrency or within investors towards a certain financial market.


Sharding is a method of splitting blockchains ( or other types of databases) into smaller, partitioned blockchains that manage specific data segments.

Sharpe Ratio

A ratio created in 1966 that investors and economists use to assess the potential return of investment (ROI).


Independent blockchains linked to a parent blockchain, designed to enhance scalability and facilitate digital asset transfers between networks.


Slippage: The difference between the expected price of a trade and the actual price at which it is executed. This usually occurs in low-liquidity markets and when using market orders, causing traders to settle for a different price due to price movements.

Smart Contract

A self-executing contract with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into code.

Smart Contract Wallet

A digital wallet designed to interact with smart contracts, allowing users to store and manage cryptocurrencies and interact with decentralized applications (DApps) that utilize smart contracts.


A record of specific data at a particular point in time, often used in blockchain technology to capture and preserve the state of the network, typically for the purpose of airdrops, hard forks, or governance.

Social Recovery Wallet

Allows rypto recovery, utilizing trusted contacts so users can regain access in case of lost keys or forgotten passwords.

Social Trading

A form of investing that allows investors to observe and mimic the trading strategies of successful investors, often facilitated through social trading platforms.


Short for Social Finance, is a combination of social networks and DeFi, where users take control of their content instead of depending on the central powers operating the platform.

Soft Fork

A software upgrade that is backward-compatible with previous versions.

Soft Landing

A controlled and gradual economic slowdown intended to prevent a hard economic landing, typically achieved through monetary and fiscal policies.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A collection of software development tools in one package installation. It is designed to help developing applications for a specific device or operating system (OS).


An object-oriented programming language created specifically by the Ethereum Network team for constructing and designing smart contracts on Blockchain platforms

Source Code

Computer code, which is responsible for defining how software will function based on a list of instructions and statements.


SPL stands for Solana Program Library (SPL). It is a set of rules and protocols governing how tokens behave and interact on the Solana network.

SRC-20 Tokens

Tokens that utilize the Bitcoin Stamps technology to attach data to Bitcoin. The SRC-20 token standard expands the utility of the Bitcoin network, enabling the creation of fungible assets.


A type of cryptocurrency designed to maintain a stable value by being pegged to a reserve asset.


An economic challenge that includes slow economic growth, high unemployment, and high inflation.


The process of participating in a PoS blockchain network by locking up a certain amount of cryptocurrency to support the network's operations and receive rewards.

Staking Pool

A pool where stakeholders combine their staking power to increase their chance of successfully validating a new block.

State Channel

A two-way communication channel between two users or nodes on a network, or between a user and a service.

Store of Value

An asset that can be saved, retrieved, and exchanged at a later time, while retaining its value.


A computer with a highest-level computational capacity, typically used for specialized applications requiring immense amounts of mathematical calculations.

Supply Chain

The sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of a commodity.


A term in Technical Analysis (TA). When a price that is decreasing finds 'support'. Usually compared with lows.



In trading, a taker is a trader who fulfills an existing buy or sell order from a market order book, taking liquidity from the market.


Slang for a sharp and sudden drop in the price of a cryptocurrency or other asset.


A blockchain network used for testing and development purposes, mimicking a mainnet without using real assets.


A short code or symbol used to represent a cryptocurrency or financial asset for trading purposes.


A digital asset representing a unit of value, utility, or ownership in a blockchain network.

Token Generation Event (TGE)

The event where new tokens are created and distributed, often through an initial coin offering (ICO) or similar fundraising mechanism.

Token Lockup

A period during which holders of a token are restricted from selling or transferring their tokens, often used to stabilize the market.

Token Sale

A fundraising event in which tokens are sold to investors, often as part of an initial coin offering (ICO).

Token Standards

Established protocols for creating and managing tokens on a blockchain, such as Ethereum's ERC-20 and ERC-721 standards.


The process of converting real-world assets into digital tokens on a blockchain.


The economic model and policies governing the supply, distribution, and use of tokens within a project or ecosystem.

Total Supply

The total number of tokens or coins that have been created for a particular cryptocurrency, including those not yet in circulation.

Total Value Locked (TVL)

A metric representing the total value of assets deposited in a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol or platform.


Short for "traditional finance," referring to the established financial systems and markets outside of the cryptocurrency and blockchain space.

Transaction ID (TXID)

A unique identifier for a specific transaction on a blockchain, used to track and verify its status and details.

Transactions Per Second (TPS)

A measure of how many transactions a blockchain network can process in one second, indicating its scalability.


A stablecoin pegged to the value of the US dollar, providing stability and liquidity in the crypto market.


Describes a system where parties do not need to trust each other because the system itself enforces rules and transactions are verified through consensus.

Trustworthy Proofs

Enabling dApps to automatically execute smart contracts based on real-world events is not a trivial task since there are many ways to manipulate the event data, both intentionally and unintentionally. Oraichain is developing a framework to verify multidimensional trustworthiness and to provide proofs of trustworthiness when smart contracts are executed.

Turing Complete

Refers to a system capable of performing any computational problem, no matter how complex, given enough time and resources.

Turing Complete language

A programming language that is capable of expressing any computation, often used to describe smart contract languages like Ethereum's Solidity.



A popular open-source Linux distribution known for its user-friendliness and widespread use in server environments, cloud computing, and personal computing.

Understanding CZ’s Number 4

Refers to a meme or catchphrase within the cryptocurrency community, often associated with Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao (CZ). "Number 4" alludes to "Ignore FUD, fake news, attacks," advising the community to avoid distractions and focus on the fundamentals.

Unit of Account

One of the primary properties of money. Allowing measurement and comparison of the value of different things.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)

An output created in a transaction, which must be referenced in a future transaction to spend funds.

User Interface (UI)

The point at which human users interact with a computer, website or application.

Utility Token

A digital token issued through a blockchain network, often via an initial coin offering (ICO), initial exchange offering (IEO) or token generation event (TGE).


Verification Code

A security code sent to a user, often via email or SMS, to verify their identity during authentication processes.


A high-level programming language designed for writing Ethereum smart contracts; it emphasizes security and simplicity.

Virtual Machine (VM)

A software-based computation environment that executes smart contracts in a secure and isolated manner.

Vladimir Club

A group of individuals who acquired 0.01% of the maximum supply of a cryptocurrency. Bitcoin's maximum supply is 21,000,000 coins. This means that anyone, who has more than 2,100 BTC, is perceived as a member of the Vladimir Club.


How quickly and how much the price of an asset changes. Calculated in terms of standard deviations in the annual return of an asset over a set period of time.


Refers to how much a given cryptocurrency has traded over a period of time, having significant impact on price from both an absolute and relative perspective.



An acronym for "We're All Gonna Make It," used to express optimism and solidarity within the crypto community.


A digital tool or application that allows users to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies securely.

Wash Trading

A manipulative trading practice where a trader buys and sells the same asset to create the illusion of market activity.

Weak Hands

A term used to describe investors who quickly sell their holdings at the first sign of price volatility, lacking the conviction to hold through downturns.

Weak Subjectivity

A concept in blockchain, especially in proof-of-stake networks, where validators need to rely on subjective initial information to make decisions.

Web 1.0

The first generation of the world wide web, also referred to as the read-only web where businesses broadcast their information and only allowed users to search for information and read it.

Web2/ Web 2.0

Websites and applications that make use of user-generated content for end users, characterized by enabling community-based input, interaction, content sharing and collaboration.

Web3 Recipes

AI and Blockchain are the most emerging technologies at the current time. AI is dynamic, uncertain, free-minded, and open to changes and adaptation, while Blockchain is fixed, immutable, and closed. To fuse the two technologies to build scalable dApps, it requires a certain amount of creativity. Oraichain is building and experimenting with various Web3 recipes via feature combination and creative system design.

Web3/Web 3.0

The next evolution of world wide web focusing on decentralized networks, blockchain, and distributed applications.


The smallest possible denomination of ether (ETH), the currency used on the Ethereum network. Often used when referring to gas prices.


An individual or entity that holds a large amount of particular cryptocurrency, allowing them to impact the markets.


Also known as "wicks", is the lines in a candlestick chart that extend from the colored bar and show the whole low-high range of a trading pair during a given time frame.


A list of approved or trusted individuals, entities, computer programs, and addresses in a crypto project, in relation to a service or event.


A document outlining a project, technology, or product, providing technical details, goals, and strategies for implementation.

Win Rate

A statistical measure representing how profitable a trader might be.

Wrapped Ether (WETH)

A tokenized version of Ether (ETH) that adheres to the ERC-20 standard, allowing it to be used in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications.


Refers to the Wyckoff method, a trading approach based on studying supply and demand through price charts and volume.


Yield Farming

A high-risk practice in DeFi where investors lock up assets to provide liquidity, lend or stake in return for rewards or interest.


Zeppelin (or Open Zeppelin)

An open-source library for Ethereum smart contracts, providing standardized, secure, and tested code to facilitate the development of decentralized applications (dApps).

Zero-Knowledge Proofs

Proofs to verify the validity of transactions without revealing any additional information, providing privacy to the transaction while maintaining its legitimacy.


A Layer 2 scaling solution that processes transactions off-chain and provides a zero-knowledge proof of transaction validity, enhancing scalability and reducing fees while maintaining security.


"Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge," a type of zero-knowledge proof that allows proving the validity of a statement with a short proof and without interaction between the prover and verifier.


Allow one party (the prover) to communicate validated data or execute computations with a third party without the data or analysis being revealed to the counterparty (the verifier).